Hello students, today we are sharing some interesting topic about Jainism and Buddhism which is so important for your upcoming SSC CGL exam 2017. The important GK Questions are shared by Amazon Coaching Center Dehradun.
- Gautam Buddha also Known as Sidhartha Sakyamuni & Tathagata
- Born in 563 Bc on Vaisakha Purnima Day at Lumbini,near Kapilvastu ,capitalof the Sakya Republic
- Left Home at the age of 29 and attained Nirvana at the age of 35 at Bodh Gaya .
- Reaction Against The Domination of Brahaman Varna Devision of Society .
- Spread of New Agriculture Economy to abandon Killing of Cow by Brahaman
- Introduction of Metal Money or Panch Marked Coins.
- Delivered his first sermon st Sarnath
- He attained Mahaparinirvana at Kusinara in 483 BC
Doctrin of Buddism
- He did not involve himself in a fruitless controversy regarding Atma and brahma he addressed himself to the wordly Problem
- He said the life is full of sorrow and Pupil suffer on account of desire if desire are Conquered Nirvana will be attained ,that means man will be free from the cycle of birth and death
- He Recommended Eight Fold Path Asthangika Marg for The Elemination of Human Problem it Comprised of in order
- If a Person Follow This Asthangika Marg He would not Depend on Priest and reach his Destination
- He taught avoid of Excess austarity and Luxury and Prescribed a middle Path
Eight Fold Path :-
- Right observation
- Right Determination
- Right Speech
- Right Action
- Right to Livelihood
- Right to Exercise
- Right Memory
- Right Meditation
Buddha Gave Some Social Conduct
- Do not Possers the Property of other
- Do not Commit violence
- Do not speak a lie
- Do not indulge in Currupt Practises
Features of Buddhism
- Do not recognize the Existance of God and soul
- He attacked Varna System and won the support of lower order
- He used Pali language which was the language of Common People and Distributed to the spread of Buddhism
- Buddha organized sangha or the religious order whose Doors are open to Everybody
Causes of Decline
By the Early 12 th Century A.D budhism became Extint in India
Following are the Causes : –
- To meet the Buddhist challenge brahamas reformed their religion
- Gradually the Buddhist monks were cut off from the mainstream of people and gave up Pali language and look the Sanskrit which was the language of intellectual
- From the 1st centuary AD they Practise idol worship on a Large on a large scale and receive offspring from the devotes .
- The new form of Buddhism was known as Vajrayana which invove the inormous wealth of monestries with women living with them led to its further degeneration.
According To jainas the origin of Jainism Goes To Long Time Back They Belive in 24 Teerthankaras
- The first Thirthankara was Rishabh Dev Born in Ayodhya
- The last 24th was Vardhman mahavir who was Contemporary of Gautam budha .
- 23 rd thirthankara was Parshunath born in Varansi
- Mahavira was Born in 540 BC at Kundgram near Vaishali (Bihar ) his father Sidharth was a Head of a famous Chatriya clan Janatrika
- Mahavira Mother was Trishala sister of Lachavi & have son Ajadshatru
- Attained Kaivalya at Jrimbhikagrama in Eastern India at the age of 42 .
- He Hehe died at the age of 72 in 468 BC at Pavapuri near Rajagriha.
- He was Called Jina or Jitendriya Nirgrantha and Mahavira .
Doctrine Of Janisim
Jainism Taught Five Doctrines
- Do not Commit Violence
- Do not Speak a lie
- Do not steal
- Do not acquire Property
- Do not observe Continence
- It is said that only the fifth doctrine was added by mahavira
- Jainism Recognised Existence of God but Placed them Lawer than Jainism
- It did not condemn the varn system like buddhism
- According to mahavira a power is born in higher or lower varna in consequence of the sins and the Virtues acquired by him in the previous birth but through pure and meritorious life lower caste can attain liberation
- No rituals is required to attain such liberation it can be attained through
- The most important teaching was ahimsa and non- injuries to living being Divided into two Section :-
Causes of Jainism Decline
- Jainism Lack of Royal Patronage
- Lack of efforts
- Severity of Jainism
- Unintelligible Philosophy
- Factionalism in Jainism
- Spread of Buddhism
- Role of Hindu preachers
- The Jainism religion could not spread to abroad countries due to lack of missionary effort.
- It is failed to get royal patronage from contemporary rulers.
- Revival of Brahmanism proved to be a set back for both, Jainism and Buddhism. ,Vaishnava and Shaiva also an important reason for the decline of Jainism .
- Present day Jainism is similar to Hinduism with Statue worshiping and pomp and show. True spirit of Jainism is now confined to saints and Munis only.
- All the Internal battles among jain dynasties in south India.
Type of Buddhism
- Its Followers believed in the original Teachings of Buddha
- They Sought individual Salvation through self –Discipline and Meditation
- They did not believe in idol – worship
- Hinayana ,like Jainism ,is a religion without God ,Karma Taking the Place of God
- Nirvana is regarded as the Extinction of all
- The oldest School of Hinayana Buddhism is the Sthaviravada (Theravada in Pali ) or the “ Doctrine of the Elders “
- Its Sanskrit Counterpart ,Which is more Philosophical is Known as Sarvastivasa or the Doctrine Which maintains the Existence of all things ,Physical as well as mental
- Gradually ,from Sarvastivada or Vaibhasika Branched off Another School Called Sautantrika ,which was more critical in outlook
- Its Followers Believed in the Heavenliness of Buddha and Sought the Salvation Through the Grace and Help of Buddha and Bodhisatvas
- Belives in idol –workship
- Belives that Nirvana is not a negative cessation of misery but a positive state of blise
- Mahayana had two chief Philosophical Schools the Madhyamika and the Yogachara
- The Former Took a line midway between the uncompromising realism of Hinayanism and the idealism of Yogachara
- The Yogachara School ,founder by Maitreyanatha ,Completely rejected the realism of Hinayanaand maintained absolute idealism
The first Council was Held in 483 BC at Sattapanni cave near Rajagiriha to compile the Sutta Pitakaand Vinaya Pitaka .
The Second Council was Held at Vaishali in 383 BC The Monks of Vaisali wanted some Change in the rites Schism into Sthaviraadins and Mahasangahikas .
The Third Council was Held at Patliputra During The reign of Ashoka ,236 Years after the Death of Buddha It was Held Under the Presidentship of Moggliputa Tissa To revise the Scriptures.
The Fourth Council was Held During The reign of Kaniska in Kashmir Under the Presidentship of Vasumitra and resulted in the Division of Buddhists into Mahayanists and Hinayanists .
The PrinciPal of Jainism as Preached By Mahavira
- Rejected The authority of Vedas and the Vedic Rituals .
- Did not Believe in Existence of God
- Believed in Karma and the transmigration of Soul
- Laid Great Emphasis on Equality
First Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the Beginning of the third Century BC and resulted in the Compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas
Second Council was held at Valabhi in the 5th Century AD under the Leadership of Devaradhi Kashamasramana and resulted in final Compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas
Way to Nirvana (Three Ratnas )
- Right faith (Samyak Vishwas )
- Right Knowledge (Samyak jnan )
- Right conduct (Samayak karma)
Five Main Teaching
- Non – injury (Ahimsa )
- Non- lying (Saryai )
- Non-Stealing (Asateya)
- Non – Possession (Aprigraha)
- Observe Continence (Brahmcharya)
- The first Four Principles are of Parsavnath and the fifth Bramaacharya was included by Mahavira